Historical Electron Models

J. J. Thomson discovered the electron in 1897. Before long, several models had been proposed to describe the electron.

The first models were physical models with real size, shape, boundaries and structure. These initial models were unsuccessful in accounting for all the data, and many scientists foolishly concluded that classical physics had failed.

The current models are mathematical models and consist of equations. Although these models are more successful, they contain many assumptions, internal inconsistencies, and violations of proven laws.