The Nucleus of an Oxygen O-16 Atom

The nucleus of an atom is located in a small volume at the center of an atom. The nucleus of Oxygen-16 is shown to the left.

Modern science asserts that the nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons. Since protons strongly repel each other, the Strong Force was invented to hold the nucleus together. Unlike other forces, the Strong Force does not decrease with the square of distance between the objects of force..

  • In the CSS model of the nucleus, a geometrical packing scheme for electrons and protons describes the shells of the nucleus. A common feature of a shell is the "triplet" structure consisting of an electron and a small proton on either side of the electron (as illustrated by the nucleus of Oxygen).
  • The CSS model accurately predicts the nuclear "magic numbers" and explains the physical origin of nuclear spins and the liquid drop features of nuclides.
  • The CSS model correctly predicts the spin (angular momentum) in hundreds of nuclides, whether stable or unstable. Quantum nuclear shell models cannot do this with so few assumptions.